Institutions that use animals for research, teaching, research training, and biological testing must establish an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) to oversee and evaluate all aspects of the institution’s animal care and use program involving any vertebrate. The IACUC is a self-regulating entity with authority that is derived from two sources: (1) the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) plus amendments, which is administered through USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), and (2) the Health Research Extension Act (Public Health Service Act) which is administered through the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) of NIH. The 1985 amendment of the latter act provided legislative authority for enforcing PHS policy, and established the organization and operation of an IACUC. The IACUC reviews activities involving animals for compliance with federal, state and local laws, regulations and guidelines. The 1985 amendment to the AWA, and the PHS policy assign a training function to the IACUC to ensure that appropriate training is provided to staff who care for animals and for animal users.